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Enterprise Risk Management

Understanding Enterprise Risk Management

What is Enterprise Risk Management?

Organisations use Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) as a structured and systematic process to identify, assess, manage, and monitor risks. ERM aims to establish a consistent and systematic framework for managing risks throughout the entire enterprise, ensuring that the organisation understands and manages risks within its risk appetite to achieve its strategic objectives. By integrating risk management into strategic planning and operational processes, ERM helps organisations achieve their objectives while minimising potential negative impacts.

What is an Example of Enterprise Risk Management?

An example of ERM in action is a company deciding to hire additional employees to conduct product quality control. By doing this, the company aims to reduce the risk of its products violating relevant regulations and facing potential recalls or legal issues.  It demonstrates how ERM effectively manages and minimises risks, while also ensuring adherence to industry standards.

Is ERM a Framework?

Yes, ERM is often implemented using frameworks such as the ISO 31000 ERM framework. This cyclical framework provides guidelines and principles for managing risks effectively. ISO 31000 is reviewed every five years to ensure it remains relevant and up-to-date with changes in the risk landscape.

When will you Need an ERM Framework? 

Your organisation is complex and expanding

Your organisation has grown in size and complexity, and it faces an increasing array of risks. Multiple business units, diverse product lines, and international operations increase the risk exposure.

An ERM framework makes sure that your entire organisation consistently identifies and manages all risks, fostering alignment with strategic goals.

Operational and Financial Resilience

Your organisation must manage financial risks, including market volatility, credit risk, and liquidity concerns, while ensuring the durability of its operations. Effective risk management is crucial for maintaining stability and investor confidence.

An ERM framework integrates financial and operational risk management into the broader risk management strategy, helping to safeguard the organisation’s resilience.

Strategic Planning and Decision-Making

Strategic decisions often involve significant risks. Whether it’s entering new markets, launching new products, or acquiring other businesses, these actions come with inherent uncertainties.

An ERM framework provides a structured approach to assess and manage risks associated with strategic initiatives, leading to better-informed decision-making and resource allocation.

Regulatory Compliance and Licensing

Regulated industries, such as finance, healthcare, energy, charities and pharmaceuticals, are subject to strict regulatory standards and compliance requirements. Failure to comply can result in severe penalties, legal consequences, and reputational damage. 

An ERM framework helps your organisation systematically identify, assess, and manage compliance risks. It ensures that all regulatory requirements are met, while safeguarding its licence to operate.

Need help with your enterprise risk management Framework?

At Aevitium LTD, we provide advice on how to establish an ERM framework that is specifically tailored to your needs and integrated within your strategic management framework.

What are the Five Components of Enterprise Risk Management?

Having a solid grasp of the fundamental elements of ERM is essential for successfully putting it into practice. The five components of ERM, as outlined by the Committee of Sponsoring Organisations of the Treadway Commission (COSO), are:


Company Culture, Governance, and Values

This component emphasises the internal environment of the organisation, encompassing aspects such as culture, governance structure, and core values. An effective risk management strategy is bolstered by a robust risk-aware culture and governance framework, which fosters ethical behaviour and ensures accountability. Importance: Establishes a strong foundation for ERM by seamlessly integrating risk management principles into the organization's core.


Strategic Planning, Objectives, and Goal Setting

This entails ensuring that risk management is in line with the organization's strategic goals and objectives. It involves establishing precise goals and recognising potential risks that could affect these objectives. Importance: Ensures that risk management efforts align with and strengthen the organization's strategic initiatives.


Risk Management Cycle (Performance)

This component, commonly known as "Performance" according to COSO involves the identification, assessment, and response to risks. It includes developing risk mitigation strategies and allocating resources to manage risks effectively. Importance: Offers a systematic approach to handling potential risks that may affect the organisation's performance.


Monitoring and Continuous Improvement (Review & Revision)

This involves consistently monitoring risk management activities and making any necessary adjustments. It is important to constantly improve the ERM framework to ensure its ongoing relevance and effectiveness. Importance: Ensures organisations remain adaptable and proactive in addressing emerging risks and shifts in the risk landscape.


Transparency, Communication, and Reporting

Effective communication and reporting are crucial for ensuring that risk information is effectively shared across the organisation. This component involves providing regular updates on risks to stakeholders and ensuring that risk management processes are transparent. Importance: Enhances decision-making by ensuring that relevant information about potential risks is readily accessible to those who require it.

Who is Responsible for Enterprise Risk Management?

A specialised team typically manages ERM under the guidance of the Chief Risk Officer (CRO). Nevertheless, for ERM to be successful, it is crucial for all levels of the organisation, including the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and senior management, to actively participate. This ensures that risk management becomes an integral part of the company's strategic and operational procedures.

Who is Accountable for Enterprise Risk Management?

Enterprise risk management (ERM) is an essential function that demands collaboration and coordination at every level of an organisation. Accountability for ERM typically resides with several key roles:

Board of Directors

The board holds ultimate responsibility for overseeing the risk management framework and ensuring that the organisation's risk appetite aligns with its strategic objectives. They play a crucial role in overseeing operations, establishing a strong leadership example and role modelling, and fostering a risk-aware culture across the organisation​​.

Senior Management

Executives and senior managers are accountable for managing risks within their respective areas of responsibility. They make sure that risk management practices are seamlessly incorporated into business processes and that any noteworthy risks are effectively communicated up the chain of command.​

Chief Executive Officer (CEO)

The CEO plays a crucial role in championing and supporting ERM initiatives. Their role involves integrating risk management into the organisational strategy and operations, with a focus on effectively managing all significant risks.


Audit & Risk Management Committee (ARC)

ARC is a group of individuals from different departments who work together with the Chief Risk Officer and senior management to implement the Enterprise Risk Management framework. They carefully evaluate risk assessments, closely monitor risk mitigation strategies, and diligently ensure continuous compliance with risk policies.​

Chief Risk Officer (CRO)

The CRO is typically the executive responsible for designing, implementing, and maintaining the ERM framework. This role involves identifying, assessing, and mitigating risks across the enterprise, reporting on risk management activities to the board, and fostering a risk-aware culture.

Internal Audit Function (IA)

IA offers an unbiased assessment of the ERM framework's effectiveness. They assess if risk management protocols are being adhered to and if they are successful in mitigating the organisation's risks.

Risk Governance is critical for organisation

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What are the Five Main Types of Enterprise Risks?

Organisations may come across various types of risks that fall within the scope of Enterprise Risk Management (ERM). There are five commonly observed categories of enterprise risks:



Risks that stem from the organisation's strategic decisions and objectives. These factors can encompass market competition, industry changes, and shifts in consumer preferences or technology and innovation.


Example: Engaging in a new market without sufficient research, resulting in financial losses.

Operational Risks

Risks associated with the organisation's daily operations. These can encompass process failures, human errors, and system breakdowns.

Example: A manufacturing defect that disrupts the production line.



Risks linked to financial activities, such as credit risk, market risk, and liquidity risk.


Example: Fluctuations in currency exchange rates impacting international revenue.

Legal & Compliance Risks

Risks that may occur due to failure to comply with laws, regulations, and standards. There are potential consequences such as legal penalties, regulatory sanctions and reputational damage.

Example: Failing to adhere to data protection regulations, resulting in fines.

Reputational Risks

Risks that have the potential to damage the organization's reputation and brand value. These may involve issues such as unfavourable public perception and customer discontent.

Example: A publicised data breach that erodes customer trust.

Aevitium LTD Strategic Risk Management
Case Studies & Insights

What are the Key Framework Components of ERM?

Effective risk management programmes often consist of the following essential framework components:

Risk Appetite

The level of risk an organisation is willing to accept and require to achieve its strategic objectives can be defined as the risk appetite.


Importance: Provides valuable guidance for decision-making and ensures that the organisation's risk-taking is in line with its strategic goals.

Culture and Governance

Organisations can ensure proactive risk management and alignment with their strategic objectives by promoting a risk-aware culture and establishing robust governance frameworks.


Importance: Fosters accountability and guarantees the integration of risk management practices within the organisation.

Risk Controls

Risk controls provide a structured approach to identifying potential risks, assessing their impact, and implementing measures to prevent or minimise their adverse effects.

Importance: Helps prevent and minimise the impact of risks on the organisation.

Risk Measurement

The process of quantifying risks to understand their potential impact.

Importance: Helps organisations prioritise risks and allocate resources effectively.

Data Management

The process of collecting, storing, and analysing risk-related data.


Important: Provides the information needed to make informed risk management decisions.

Scenario Planning and Stress Testing

Techniques used to assess the potential impact of different risk scenarios.​


Importance: Helps organisations prepare for and respond to unexpected events.

Risk Management Life Cycle by Aevitium LTD

What is the Process of ERM?

The Enterprise Risk Management process is a comprehensive framework used to systematically identify, assess, manage, monitor, and report risks across the enterprise.


It involves several key steps:

  1. Risk Identification through assessments and audits.

  2. Risk Assessment including likelihood and impact using qualitative and quantitative method.

  3. Risk management via avoidance, reduction, transfer, or acceptance.

  4. Risk Monitoring through reviews and performance metrics.

  5. Risk Reporting via reports and dashboards.

Ready to bring your risk and compliance to the next level?

Reach out today to discover how our integrated approach will help you to achieve your objectives. At Aevitium LTD, we’re dedicated to providing personalised approach through our risk advisory services.

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